NEW HYPOTHESIS OF THE MOON AND THE MERCURY FORMATION
Bateshov Yerzhan, Assan Dinara
Nowadays there are the following hypothesizes of the Moon formation: combined formation of the Moon and the Earth, the Moon capture by the Earth, the Moon formation as a result of celestial body hit on the Earth and others. We suggest a new hypothesis of the Moon formation.
At the beginning of XIX century German astronomer W.Olbers advanced a hypothesis that a planet, called the Phaeton later, existed between the Mars and the Jupiter. For some unknown reasons this planet was fallen to pieces and turned into zone of small planets — irregularly shaped celestial bodies – asteroids.
If there was the planet between the Mars and the Jupiter, this planet must have crust, mantle and core.
After the explosion the Phaeton broke to pieces with its crust, mantle and core. All was mixed. Aftergetting into outer space, parts of liquid core and mantle with some elements of crust like any liquid became ball-shaped.
Probably this way the Moon, the Mercury and may be other satellites came into being. On the earliest level of its development the Moon was almost completely fused, i.e. it was liquid. That fact brought it to its substance differentiation and plagioclases as more light components floated to the surface, hardened and formed the Moon’s crust.
The same process was on the Mercury.
That happened about after the explosion of the Phaeton. Just then the Moon wasn’t still a satellite of the Earth and the Mercury didn’t have a present-day orbit around the Sun. For million years these planets developed their trajectories in the solar system until they got stabilized. All that time they were constantly hit by the ruins of the Phaeton planet. That’s why the Mercury is far from the zone of asteroids now – “the main supplier” of meteorites and its surface has a great number of craters of impact origin.
A similar fortune of the both planets is seen on the landscapes of these “twins”. In 1974 American spacecraft “Mariner-10” sent a photo of the Mercury surface and surprised scientists very much. There was a typical lunar landscape with different craters, mountains and flat areas — lunar seas with basalt composition like on the Moon.
There are some more arguments telling that the explosion formed the Moon:
- The conclusion is in the literature (l.3 p.261), it means that mass distribution on surface layers is dissimilar as exact observation for movement of artificial satellites showed that they move at different speed over some areas of the Moon surface. That fact proves that the explosion created the Moon.
- Analysis of crystalline rocks structure brings to conclusion that they have been completely fused and then quickly frozen. And it is possible to suppose that inside the Phaeton at high temperatures crystalline rocks were frozen immediately (l.1 p. 175; l.3 p. 262).
- In 1998 Americans discovered water ice on the Moon (official information from NASA).
- The Moon average density is close to the average of not dense substance of the Earth mantle and perhaps of the planet of the Earth’s group — Phaeton (l.4 p.155).
- The Moon doesn’t have magnetic field but at the same time there was fount residual magnetization of lunar rocks. So in the past they were liable to strong magnetic field. (l.1 p.176; l.7 p.207).
- Let’s try to explain the process of mascons creation – big meteorites on the bottom of a lunar crater. If big meteorites, being met by the Earth at high speed, explode and their pieces are scattered all over the surroundings so there is no ground to suppose that crateriform meteorites can be in the form of big mass on the bottom of a lunar crater (l.4 p.153-154). However it is possible to admit that some meteorites being met by the Moon moved slowly comparing to the Moon and then the Moon was of tight silicate rock and that’s why they came into its surface with little destruction. The speed of meteorites is not big because some meteorites overtook the Moon and hits were weak.
- The hypothesis of the Moon capture by the Earth was first offered by American geophysicist Harold Yuriy in 1962. He considers that in the past the Moon was one of the planets of the solar system. But this fact is improbable as for becoming a satellite, a celestial body passing by the Earth should change the direction of its speed at some definite moment (l.6 pp. 158-159). In our case the Moon was not one of the planets of the solar system and didn’t have a certain trajectory around the Sun, its trajectory was constantly developing and finally was captured by the Earth.
The issue of the Moon and the Mercury origin will be always interesting for scientists. The version in this article is only hypothesis of similar origin of these planets. A big difference of the planets structure shows that probably the Mercury is mostly consists of the Phaeton core and the Moon — of the Phaeton mantle.
There is the following argumentation of our conclusions.
The Mars has a red color owing to ferric oxide. In particular ferric oxides cover the planet with a thick layer and Soviet and American spacecrafts took many colored photos of stony desserts covered with red ferriferous sand. On these photos we can see that the depth of “the red” on the craters is for many kilometers. “Rust” on the surface of the planet is a unique phenomenon in the solar system. Indeed water and atmosphere with a great concentration of free oxygen are necessary for ferric corrosion of rock materials.
The present atmosphere of the Mars is greatly dense, the pressure on the Mars surface is about 0,6% of the atmosphere pressure on the Earth surface and it has only 0,1 % of oxygen. And it is not enough for turning the Mars into the Red Planet. It means that the Mars has turned red before. How much oxygen has been necessary for that? 500 trillions tons of oxygen is necessary only for 100 meters weathering crust, so “rust” could appear only if there have been some woods on the Mars before!
Furthermore there have been rivers on the Mars (traces of river-beds and inflows on the photos) and lakes (layers of sediments which are similar to the lakes on the Earth); and it have rained (according to configuration of some gutters on mountainsides of the Mars). Besides in 2002 NASA officially informed about the existence of water ice on the Mars. From physics we know the less pressure the lower boiling point of water. In the present atmosphere of the Mars water must boil at the temperature +2°С and therefore it can’t be in liquid state on the Mars.
What’s the origin of the rivers, the gutters and the lakes? So in the past the Mars could have more stronger atmosphere and after its destruction the planet turned into cold waterless world. The atmosphere disappeared for a very short period as according to calculations of geologist P. Kettermould (University of Sheffield) – a sudden catastrophic flood broke system of flood-control canals (25 kilometers wide and 2000 kilometers long).
What was the reason of the climate changing?
Not only between the Sun and the planets there are gravitational interacting forces, the explosion of one planet can destroy the interaction harmony of all the planets and bring to the change of climate on them. So the nearer the planet was the Phaeton the stronger climate changes were on the Mars.
There is such a term in physics – «inertness». Characteristic of inertness is that a body needs some time for speed changing.
When the Phaeton exploded the Mars changed its trajectory. Meanwhile the Mars atmosphere owing to inertness didn’t have time to change its speed so that it could overtake the planet. And notwithstanding gravitational forces a big part of the atmosphere separates from the planet into the space.
It is possible to suppose:
- The Phaeton exploded. It wasn’t destroyed gradually as the Mars couldn’t increase its speed so fast as to destroy its own atmosphere.
- The Phaeton explosion was irregular from all the sides otherwise the center of gravity of the ex-planet would stay on its previous place and the Mars wouldn’t change its trajectory abruptly.
- The Phaeton explosion happened approximately when the Mars was within the minimum distance from it.
What changes happened on the Earth? The climate on the Earth, which was after the Mars, was getting colder (don’t mix with the ice ages). Probably it happened 65 million years ago when all dinosaurs died out. Being coldblooded they needed solar heat. When their huge bodies got cool they needed time to warm themselves and many of them died.
Approximately at the same period abrupt changes happened in the plant world of the Earth. In the middle of Age of Reptiles and at the beginning of Cretaceous period Gymnosperms reached their fullest flower, conifer plants are included in this group. But at the end of Cretaceous period metasperms became the first and the Earth was quickly covered with deciduous woods.
Simultaneously 65 million years ago in the Earth crust great orogenic processes started which changed the landscape of its surface.
Now let’s prove the connection of the Moon capture by the Earth and the ice ages.
For the last millions years the northern areas of our planet were under a thick icy layer several times and for many thousand years winters were long and cold and snow and ice didn’t melt even in summer. According to up-to-date scientific data 1/5 part of the Earth was covered with icy mass. Present glaciers cannot be compared to the great glaciations of our planet. They occupy only 15 million square kilometers, i.e. 1/30 part of the Earth surface. So that great glaciation had really planetary phenomenon and consequently the reasons could be great too.
As it have been proved above the Moon and the Mercury were created from one planet. The orbits of these both planets were developing. Over the last million years the Moon probably passed by the Earth several times and it was the reason of great changing on the Earth. And so the change of the shape and inclination of the orbit to ecliptic plane of the Earth became the reason of ice ages.
12-13 thousand years ago according to the hypothesis of Austrian scientist Gerbiger the Moon was caught by the Earth and it brought to geological changes – great glaciations stopped and flow gain of the Gulf Stream in the northern hemishpere.
In the reports of laboratory «Inversor» (journal “Tekhnika molodyozhi”) in January 1978 an original hypothesis of geodetic-engineer T. Massenko was published. He thinks that elevated parts of the Earth fit with big hollows of the Moon i.e. there is interdependency of “cavity and concavity”. This dependency is inverse for all comparing levels of the parts of the surfaces and for their location ( if eastern longitude on the Earth it is western on the Moon and vice versa). For example western group of lunar seas (Ocean of Storms and others) are similar to Asia by configuration, Sea of rains reminds of Europe and Sea of clouds – southernmost tip of Africa. Eastern group of lunar seas (Sea of serenity and Sea of tranquility) are like Northern and Southern America. So the lunar seas with their configuration are similar to the Earth continents.
The Moon studies were continued by chief geologist of “Belskogeoservis” JSC V.Chernykh in journal “Zhak voprossa” №2, 1997. He believed that during the Moon capture by the Earth the Moon itself was badly changed. Its surface was partly damaged and broken pieces of the Moon lithosphere uncovered deeper and it means more melanocratic rocks. Nowadays we can see these lunar sea-hollows with mafic rocks on their bottoms on the Moon.
Pieces of the Moon ground fell on the Earth as meteorites and some of them that didn’t have time enough to burn in the atmosphere are known as tektites at present.
There is the last news of astronomers proving our hypothesis. Traces of rivers and seas were found on the Mars (http://news.mail.ru/society/4571187/).
Cyber Security informs us with the following: BERLIN, October 10, 2010. German scientists discovered traces of a big sea on the Mars. Specialists explored region Melas Chasma, located 9 kilometers lower the main surface of the Red Planet, and discovered that low parts of Melas Chasma abruptly go down forming almost plumb canyon.
Recently this region was studied by astronomers with the help of stereo cameras of high resolution and spectrographs, fixed on orbiters Mars Express and found out that this region is one of the coldest ones on the Mars.
Melas Chasma is extended for about 4000 kilometers and according to the whole perimeter of the canyon there are many evidences that they constantly contacted with water in the past.
So Melas Chasma — is the bottom of a big sea of the Mars, which have existed for a few milliards years ago. In the area of the supposed sea there were a great number of canals where probably water was running. Specialists point out that on the sides of the canyon as well as on the bottom of these canals there are many light sulfide compounds, which appear as a result of oxidation by water attack.
At first the region Melas Chasma was explored by orbiter Mars Express in the middle of 2006 and already at that time it was suggested there have been the sea milliards years ago.
Now at closer examination specialists discovered typical rounded lithoidal rocks which turned into these ones as a result contacting with water. Besides presumably on some parts of Melas Chasma mad bottom deposits were found, also proving water presence in the past. During the last researches scientists found out that inside Melas Chasma there were considerable height variation.
For height finding on the Earth scientists use sea level but as there is no sea on the Mars and they take for zero level an average height of some big plateaus. Average of these figures is called an areoid.
In case with Melas Chasma the lowerest point was situated over 5 kilometers lower than an areoid. At the same time the nearest plateau is 4 kilometers higher than an areoid. Let’s remember that scientists have already proved the hypothesis that there was a huge lake (2 thousand kilometers diameter and 8 kilometers depth) on the Mars. Nowadays plain Ellas is situated on southern hemisphere of the planet. Scientists from Institute of Planetology in the charge of Lesley Blimaster made a geological map of the region.
It was based on the data of many sondes of the Mars. With the help of this map scientists were able to match geological data with the former researches and set the time of the supposed lake.
Earlier scientists discovered that water on the Mars was suitable for living because it had neutral pH. In 2005 Mars rover “Spirit” on the way from Husband-hill stopped at the entrance of rock which Komanchi was called later. Researches of this rock were started in all available ways.
It was found out that “concentration of Komanchi carbonates (16-34% on mass) could appear only in one case — water existence with neutral pH that proves life existence on the Mars in its past”, — to this conclusion scientists came in the work, published in journal “Science”.
“It is one of the most important discoveries, made by rovers. Carbonates presences on the Mars tell us that there have been conditions favourable for life”, explained one of participants, Steve Skaers, from Mars rover “Spirit” and “Opportunity”. And it means that there was dense atmosphere on the Mars in the past.
In conclusion we’d like to mention that in our scientific project we studied only one hypothesis of the Phaeton existence. The result of the destruction was the formation of the Mercury and the Moon.
Also the explosion of the Phaeton can explain other events of cosmic and planetary scale and make a logic chain of them. There are: the disappearance of dense atmosphere on the Mars, the climate changing on the Earth 65 million years ago, extinction of dinosaurs, glacial period (1 million years ago) and others.
1. M. Ya. Marov “Planety Solnechnoi sistemy”, Moscow: “Nauka”, 1981
2. А. А. Gurshtein “Izvechnyye tainy neba”, Moscow: “Prosveshcheniye”, 1984
3. I. А. Klimishin “Astronomiya nashikh dnei”, Moscow: “Nauka” , 1980
4. B. Mason, U.Melson “Lunnyye porody”, Moscow :“Mir”, 1973
5. V. N. Komarov “Uvlekatelnaya astronomiya” Moscow “Nauka” 1968
6. V. N. Komarov “Novaya zanimatelnaya astronomiya” Moscow “Nauka” 1983
7. D. Moshe “Astronomiya” Moscow “Prosveshcheniye” 1985
8. F. Yu. Zigel “Astronomicheskay mozaika” Moscow “Nauka” 1987
9. V.G. Demin “Sudba Solnechnoi sistemy” Moscow “Nauka” 1969
10. P.I.Popov, B.A. Vorontsov-Velyaminov, R.V.Kunitsky “Astrnomiya” Moscow “Prosveshcheniye” 1967
On International creative contest on astronomies and science about cosmos of the
name Dzhordano Bruno for scientific hypothesises Yerzhan BATESHOV has won in nomination «For originality of the ideas» (g. PETERSBURG, Institute applied astrophysicists, 2002) http://ad-astra.len.su/bruno.php
Dinara Asan with data hypothesis, under scientific management Y.BATESHOV, comprised of hypothesises new proof, participated in International contest «d’EUROTALENT-FIDJIP» (2010, Italy, France).
На Международном творческом конкурсе по астрономии и наукам о космосе имени Джордано Бруно за научные гипотезы Е.Батешов победил в номинации «За оригинальность идеи» (г.Санкт-Петербург, Институт прикладной астрофизики, 2002 год) http://ad-astra.len.su/bruno.php
Динара Асан с данными гипотезами, под научным руководством Е.Батешова, включив в гипотезы новые доказательства, участвовала в Международном конкурсе «Евроталант-Фиджип» (2010 год, Италия, Франция).